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Rosetta 2 is the translation layer that enables a Mac with Apple silicon to use apps built for an Intel-based Mac. The translation layer works in the background whenever you use an app built only for Mac computers with an Intel processor, and automatically translates the app for use with Apple silicon the first time the app is run.
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Just click Install, then enter your username and password to allow Rosetta 2 installation to proceed. Once installation is complete, Rosetta will then be available for any of your apps that need it.
The translation process runs the first time the app is opened, and may cause the app's icon to bounce for a few seconds before it launches, but after that you likely won't see any performance hit. Indeed, in some cases, apps built with x86-64 will even run faster in Rosetta than they do on Intel Macs.
Right now, there are more than 300 connectors that you can utilize. One of them is a bridge that allows you to sync Outlook with Google Calendar. There are also other dedicated connectors for Outlook 365 and Outlook.com, as well.
Microsoft Outlook and Google Calendar both have apps for Android and iOS. Installing these apps is an easy and quick solution, and with timely notifications and smart scheduling, you can configure both calendars for specific events.
The traditional methods used for detecting cracks are mainly based on the measurement of global deformations. Unfortunately, the sensitivity and precision of this type of measurement are quite weak, the density of cracking must reach comparatively high values before its impacts start to be detectable in terms of deformations [19,20,21]. Acoustic emission (AE) can be a promising technique [8,10]. Listening to AE events gives information earlier than the visible opening of cracks, but the interpretation of results is always a difficult matter. This is because most AE events occur just before the propagation of microcracks . The lack of significant AE activity at the initial stages of loading causes difficulty in distinguishing between background noise and acoustic events related to the crack. The techniques using ultrasonic waves velocity are particularly interesting because of the direct relationship between characteristics of wave propagation and the stage of damage to the material .
Another commonly used technique for detection of cracks in structures (e.g., plate or rod) is the group of ultrasonic guided waves (Rayleigh and Lamb waves) approach. In this technique, where guided wave modes are preferred to obtain a clear response from damage via a single-mode. However, if the structure is made of heterogeneous and strongly scattering material like concrete, guided waves are difficult to interpret (methods are restricted to components). For these situations, diffuse ultrasonic waves can be created by an impulse excitation, allowing many reflections to occur and resulting in a similar diffuse wave in the structure . The challenges linked with diffuse waves is the complexity of the waveforms, because it allows many modes, as the structure can support during the propagation (like a random walk).
Addressing these challenges and extracting damage/change information from complex diffuse waves have been the subjects of the vast number of studies. For example, in , investigated small cracks under environmental changes. In , presented the efficacy of the ultrasonic technique in discerning healing from its failure. In , studied real crack and influence on the diffusion parameters (degradation of the signal scattered from structural deformation). The diagnosis of large cracks/notches and the monitoring of crack propagation using diffuse ultrasonic wave can be found in [28,29]. In , Michaels and Michaels have presented the structural change in a simple aluminum specimen using short-time cross-correlation of two diffuse ultrasonic signals recorded from the same transmitter and receiver, before and after damage. Anugonda et al.  investigate the propagation and scattering of ultrasound in concrete structure and determined the diffusion parameters. In , Won presented the measurement of the artificial cracks varying depth in the concrete specimens with diffuse ultrasound. Eunjong et al.  examined the water permeability and chloride ion penetrability of cracked concrete sample using diffuse ultrasonic signal and shown that the relations between crack width, water flow, and diffuse ultrasound parameters. Considering this, the diagnosis of propagation of microcracks in reinforcement concrete remains a significant challenge for NDT techniques, despite the special interest in making such degradation since these cracks may lead to undesirable premature failure. Advanced signal processing techniques, such as time-frequency domain analysis, statistical, matching pursuit, and other, could be useful for determination of damage-sensitive features. In most of the cases, different NDT techniques produce multiple decisions, often conflicting about the integrity of the monitored structure. In , the distributed fiber optic and coda wave techniques for damage investigation in concrete structure are presented, and they showed that both techniques achieved earlier damage detection than standard sensors. However, no statistical methods have been used to compare all the techniques. The above challenge led researchers to use fusion techniques at different levels of data processing. Information-level fusion has been used after data transferred into abstractions. In NDT techniques, distracted decisions at a high level of abstractions may be produced by several techniques about the integrity of the structure/material . Typically, decision fusion is applied at the final stage of the process of evaluation. Ideally, decision fusion reduces the level of uncertainty in the decision made by different techniques and produce more trusted decisions with high level of confidence.
Cracks in rebar-reinforced concrete beams provide a very useful first warning for the monitoring of structures in risk environments. In this paper, the cracks are caused by static load application on a reinforced concrete beam equipped with four embedded ultrasonic sensors in a four-point arrangement. On the transmitted ultrasonic signals, the different features are extracted as a function of the load. To evaluate the accuracy of the crack detection with the embedded ultrasonic sensors, the state change of the beam is monitored with additional NDT methods. Moreover, the implementation of decision fusion method may significantly reduce the level of uncertainty and enhance damage detection ability.
As it can be concluded from above literature review, the information fusion on various levels is a very helpful technique, which can provide earlier crack detection in undamaged structures due to the appropriately constructed decision-making algorithm. Moreover, for successful detection of damage one need to apply the processing algorithms with enough sensitivity to detect early cracks in a structure. Finally, the appropriate threshold should be established to distinguish between healthy and damaged structure and minimize the possibility of false damage indications. In this paper, the authors combined all these approaches in order to develop a damage detection system based on embedded sensors, which is sensitive to microcracks and robust to false damage indications, simultaneously. The originality of this paper covers the application of newly developed features based on advanced signal processing measures and functions, selection of the most sensitive ones to cracks, and their implementation into the fusion algorithm, which resulted in increasing of overall sensitivity to damage in considered benchmark structure.
The loading machine is controlled by an analog controller. Since the main goal of the test was to evaluate the cracks evolution and the damage level with the increasing load using ultrasonic techniques (see Figure 6), it was decided to measure also the force. The loading rate was fixed at the beginning on 1 kN/min till 108 kN and then increased to 5 kN/min (Figure 6), which introduced appropriate stress/strain state in the tested specimen.
Ultrasonic wave velocity and attenuation is increased by initiating cracks and can indicate as damage index [36,37]. Therefore, attenuation and velocity changes are almost linear with initiating cracks. However, the relation of stress and strain in not linear for concrete under different loading. The speed of elastic ultrasonic waves stretching through the solid based on the mechanical stress of the body . Still, from the previous experimental studies [37,39,40,41], the observations and result presented almost linear phase under different load variation .
Figure 14 indicates that increment of the level of nonlinearities (cracking) in the beam subjected to external stress, and simultaneously, the amplitude of the AR parameters (increasing the residual error) tends to decrease. The AR parameters were calculated by fitting the AR model to a baseline signal from one transducer pair (top) before the start of the experiment using the RMSE technique (see  for more details). If cracks are present in the structure, the residual errors will increase due to higher attenuation (decreasing the AR parameters amplitude), which is caused by the increased crack width under loading. From Figure 14, it can be observed that the residual error increases as the stress level increases in the beam. The results from a bending tensile force between 36 kN to 160 kN, the rate of AR residual error increases up to 1.9 % due to energy attenuation, which indicates the opening and propagation of cracks.
The plot for Continuous wavelet transform (CWT) is depicted in Figure 15. The energy of a signal is derived from the CWT transform from the raw signal time-series. The extracted feature from this time-frequency domain analysis is more useful than time domain only. An energy vector is established by computing the energy of each branch (scalogram) to show the energy distribution towards the frequency bands. From the comparison of CWT coefficients between the changed/damaged state and reference undamaged state (as shown in Figure 15), a noticeable deviation can be found in different frequency bands. The proposed CWT energy coefficient is obtained by calculating the root-mean-square deviation in percentage between the energy vector of the health state and that of the damaged state. From Figure 15, it can be observed that the coefficient decreases as the bending tensile as the level increases between 36 kN to 48 kN in the beam, and then it dramatically increases as the load increases between 49 kN to 60 kN. This is because most of the cracks appear on the concrete surface parallel to the load application under compression. Ultrasonic wave propagation through such direction, therefore, may miss encountering cracks. There are no large values of the wavelet coefficients since the specimen has been destroyed by the horizontal splitting cracks that prevented the propagation of ultrasonic waves from transducer 1 to transducer 2 through the concrete.